Peraturan Mengenai Tanggung Jawab Maskapai Penggangkutan Udara

Pemerintah terhitung tanggal 10 Agustus 2011 telah mengeluarkan Peraturan Menteri Perhubungan No: PM 77 Tahun 2011 Tentang Tanggung Jawab Pengangkut Angkutan udara. Peraturan ini secara garis besar mengatur tentang pokok-pokok tanggung jawab maskapai angkutan udara (baik pengangkut penumpang, kargo, ataupun pos) terhadap peristiwa terjadinya kecelakaan atau kerugian yang terkait dengan kegiatan usaha yang dijalankannya selaku operator jasa transportasi / angkutan udara.

Menurut peraturan ini, ada 6 (enam) Jenis tanggung jawab pengangkut udara. Pengangkut yang mengoperasikan pesawat udara wajib bertanggung jawab atas kerugian terhadap:

1.       Penumpang yang meninggal dunia, cacat tetap atau luka-luka;

Besar santunan:

a.       Penumpang yang meninggal dunia di dalam pesawat udara karena akibat kecelakaan pesawat udara atau kejadian yang semata-mata ada hubungan dengan  pengangkutan udara diberi santunan sebesar Rp. 1.250.000.000 per penumpang.

b.      Penumpang yang meninggal dunia akibat kejadian yang semata-mata ada hubungan dengan  pengangkutan udara pada saat proses meninggalkan ruang tunggu Bandar udara menuju pesawat atau pada saat proses turun dari pesawat menuju ruang kedatangan di Bandar udara tujuan diberi santunan sebesar Rp. 500.000.000 per penumpang.

c.       Cacat tetap total diberikan santunan sebesar Rp. 1.250.000.000 per penumpang

d.      Cacat tetap sebagian diberikan santunan sesuai tabel santunan berdasarkan cacat yang dideritanya.

e.      Biaya pengobatan akibat kecelakaan tersebut maksimal sebesar Rp. 200.000.000 per penumpang.



2.       Hilang atau rusaknya bagasi kabin;


3.       Hilang, Musnah, atau rusaknya bagasi tercatat;

Besar santunan:

a.       Kehilangan bagasi tercatat diberi penggantian Rp. 200.000 per Kg / Penumpang. Maksimal Rp. 4.000.000 / penumpang.

b.      Kerusakan bagasi diberikan ganti rugi sesuai jenis, bentuk, ukuran, dan merk bagasi tersebut.

c.       Uang tunggu selama bagasi belum ditemukan, Maksimal sebesar Rp. 200.000 / hari (paling lama untuk 3 hari kalender).


4.       Hilang, musnah, atau rusaknya kargo;


5.       Keterlambatan angkutan udara;

Terdiri dari:

a.       Keterlambatan penerbangan (Delayed flight)

-          Keterlambatan lebih dari 4 jam diberi santunan Rp. 300.000 per penumpang

-          Bagi penumpang yg di “Re-routing”, diberikan 50% dari point 1 diatas, dan pengangkut wajib menyediakan tiket  penerbangan lanjutan atau menyediakan transportasi lain  sampai ke tempat tujuan apabila tidak ada moda transportasi selain angkutan udara.

-          Dalam hal pengalihan penerbangan ke maskapai lain, maka penumpang dibebaskan dari biaya tambahan. 

Keterlambatan yang diberi santunan hanya keterlambatan yang penyebabnya diluar factor cuaca dan/atau factor teknis operasional.

Factor cuaca antara lain: hujan lebat, petir, badai, kabut, asap, jarak pandang dibawah standar minimal atau kecepatan angin yang melampaui standar maksimal yang mengganggu keselamatan penerbangan.

Faktor teknis operasional antara lain: Bandar udara tidak dapat digunakan untuk operasional, lingkungan menuju Bandar udara atau landasan terganggu fungsinya (Misal: retak, banjir, atau kebakaran), terjadinya antrian pesawat lepas landas (take off), antrian landing, & keterlambatan pengisian bahan bakar.


b.      Tidak terangkutnya penumpang karena kapasitas pesawat (denied boarding)

-          Maskapai wajib mengalihkan ke maskapai lain tanpa biaya tambahan

-          Memberikan konsumsi, akomodasi, dan biaya transportasi apabila tidak ada  penerbangan lain ke tempat tujuan


c.       Pembatalan penerbangan (cancellation of flight)

-          Maskapai wajib mengembalikan seluruh uang tiket penumpang

6.       Kerugian yang di derita pihak ketiga (baik dalam hal cedera badan ataupun kerusakan harta benda).

a.       Dalam hal cedera badan

-          Meninggal dunia diberi santunan Rp. 500.000 per orang

-          Cacat tetap total diberi santunan maksimal Rp. 750.000.000 per orang

-          Biaya pengobatan akibat luka-luka maksimal Rp. 100.000.000 per orang


b.      Dalam hal kerusakan harta benda

-          Untuk Pesawat dengan kapasitas sampai dengan 30 tempat duduk, ganti rugi maksimal Rp. 50.000.000.000

-          Untuk Pesawat dengan kapasitas 30 sampai dengan 70 tempat duduk, ganti rugi maksimal Rp. 100.000.000.000

-          Untuk Pesawat dengan kapasitas 70 sampai dengan 150 tempat duduk, ganti rugi maksimal Rp. 175.000.000.000

-          Untuk Pesawat dengan kapasitas lebih dari 150 tempat duduk, ganti rugi maksimal Rp. 250.000.000.000

Dikarenakan besarnya eksposur resiko dan tanggung jawab yang dipikul oleh pihak maskapai, pemerintah juga mewajibkan agar resiko / tanggung jawab tersebut diasuransikan, dan asuransi yang menjaminnya berupa konsorsium. Konsorsium tersebut terbuka bagi seluruh asuransi yang dapat menjamin dan hendak berpartisipasi dalam konsorsium tersebut.

By Ridwan Ichsan on 22.9.11 | , , | 1 comment

AIRPORT OWNERS AND OPERATORS LIABILITY INSURANCE POLICY (48FLY00001)

The Insurers hereby agree to the extent and in the manner hereinafter provided, to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay or by final judgement be adjudged to pay up to but not exceeding the amounts specified in the Schedule, to any person or persons as damages
a)     for bodily injury including death at any time resulting therefrom (hereinafter referred to as bodily injury) or
b)    for loss of or damage to property of others (hereinafter referred to as property damage)
caused by accident occurring during the period mentioned in the Schedule and arising out of the hazards set forth in Sections 1, 2 and 3 below.


SECTION 1
Bodily injury or property damage

a)     in or about the premises specified in the Schedule, as a direct result of the services granted by the Insured
b)    elsewhere in the course of any work or of the performance of any duties carried out by the Insured or his employees in connection with the business or operations specified in the Schedule

caused by the fault or negligence of the Insured or any of his employees engaged in the Insured's business or by any defect in the Insured's premises, ways, works, machinery or plant used in the Insured's business.


THIS SECTION IS SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING EXCLUSIONS:

  1. Loss of or damage to property owned, rented, leased or occupied by; whilst in the care, custody or control of; whilst being handled, serviced or maintained by the Insured or any servant of the Insured, but this exclusion shall be deemed not to apply to vehicles that are not the property of the Insured whilst on the premises specified in the Schedule.
  2. Bodily injury or property damage caused by
a)     any mechanically propelled vehicle which the Insured may cause or permit any other person to use on the road in such a manner as to render them responsible for insurance under any domestic or international law appertaining to road traffic, or where no such law exists, whilst such vehicle is on any public highway.
b)    any Ships, Vessels, Craft or Aircraft owned, chartered, used or operated by or on account of the Insured, but this exclusion shall be deemed not to apply to aircraft owned by others which are on the ground and for which indemnity is otherwise granted under Section 2 of this Policy, whether such Section is insured hereunder or not.
  1. Bodily injury or property damage arising out of any Airmeet, Air Race, or Air Show, nor any stand used for the accommodation of spectators in connection therewith, unless previously agreed by Insurers.
  2. Bodily injury or property damage arising out of construction of, demolition of or alterations to Buildings, Runways, or Installations by the Insured or his contractors or sub-contractors (other than normal maintenance operations) unless previously agreed by Insurers.
  3. Bodily injury or property damage arising out of any goods or products manufactured, constructed, altered, repaired, serviced, treated, sold, supplied, or distributed by the Insured or his employees after such goods or products have ceased to be in the possession or under the control of the Insured, but this exclusion shall be deemed not to apply to the supply, by the Insured, of food or drink at the premises specified in the Schedule.


SECTION 2

Loss of or damage to Aircraft or Aircraft equipment, not owned, rented or leased by the Insured, whilst on the ground in the care, custody or control of or whilst being serviced, handled or maintained by the Insured or any servant of the Insured.

THIS SECTION IS SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING EXCLUSIONS:

a)     Loss of or damage to robes, wearing apparel, personal effects or merchandise of any description.
b)    Loss of or damage to Aircraft or Aircraft equipment, hired or leased by or loaned to the Insured.
c)     Loss of or damage to any Aircraft while in flight as defined.



SECTION 3

Bodily injury or property damage arising out of the possession, use, consumption or handling of any goods or products manufactured, constructed, altered, repaired, serviced, treated, sold, supplied or distributed by the Insured or his employees, but only in respect of such goods or products which form part of or are used in conjunction with aircraft, and then only after such goods or products have ceased to be in the possession or under the control of the Insured.


THIS SECTION IS SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING EXCLUSIONS:
(a)    Damage to the property of the Insured or to property within his care, custody or control.
(b)    The cost of repairing or replacing any defective goods or products manufactured, constructed, altered, repaired, serviced, treated, sold, supplied or distributed by the Insured or any defective part or parts thereof.
(c)    Loss arising out of improper or inadequate performance, design or specification but this exclusion shall be deemed not to apply to bodily injury or property damage as insured hereby resulting therefrom.
(d)    Loss of use of any Aircraft not actually lost or damaged in an accident giving rise to a claim hereunder.


EXCLUSIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL SECTIONS OF THIS POLICY
1.     THIS POLICY DOES NOT COVER liability for bodily injury to any person, who at the time of sustaining such injury is engaged in the service of the Insured or acting on his behalf, or liability for which the Insured or his insurer may be held liable under any workmans compensation, unemployment compensation or disability benefits law or any similar law.
2.     THIS POLICY DOES NOT COVER the cost of making good any faulty workmanship for which the Insured, his employees, contractors or subcontractors may be liable (but this limitation shall not exclude resulting damage arising out of such faulty workmanship).
3.     THIS POLICY DOES NOT COVER liability assumed by the Insured by Agreement under any Contract unless such liability would have attached to the Insured even in the absence of such Agreement.
4.     THIS POLICY DOES NOT COVER liability of the Insured directly or indirectly occasioned by, happening through or in consequence of War, invasions, act of foreign enemy, hostilities (whether War be declared or not), civil war, rebellion, revolution, insurrection or military or usurped power.
5.     THIS POLICY DOES NOT COVER liability arising out of the operation of an airfield control tower unless previously agreed by Insurers.
6.     Each section of this Policy excludes liability which is or would be covered under any other section of the Policy, whether such other section is insured hereunder or not.
7.     This Policy is subject to the attached Nuclear Risks Exclusion Clause.

PAYMENT OF COSTS
In addition to the limits set out in the Schedule, Insurers will pay all legal and other costs incurred with their consent in the defence of any claim made against the Insured,

PROVIDED THAT

in the event of their requiring any claim to be contested
(a)    If the claim be successfully resisted by the Insured the Insurers will pay all costs, charges and expenses incurred by the Insured in connection therewith up to but not exceeding the sum insured under this Policy.
(b)    If a payment exceeding the sum insured has to be made to dispose of a claim, the liability of Insurers to pay any costs, charges and expenses in connection therewith shall be limited to such proportion of the said costs, charges and expenses as the sum insured by this Policy bears to the amount paid to dispose of the claim.



DEFINITIONS
1.     ACCIDENT. The word "accident" shall be understood to mean an accident or series of accidents arising out of one event or occurrence.
2.     FLIGHT. The term "in flight" means the time commencing with the actual take off run of the aircraft and continuing thereafter until it has completed its landing run.


GENERAL CONDITIONS:
1.     Upon the happening of any accident likely to give rise to a claim under this Policy or upon the receipt by the Insured of notice of any claim or of any other subsequent proceedings, notice in writing with full particulars shall be given to Insurers as soon as possible after the same shall come to the knowledge of the Insured or the Insured's representative. Every letter, claim, writ, summons or process shall be forwarded to Insurers immediately on receipt by the Insured.
2.     All notices as specified above shall be given by the Insured to the person(s) or firm named for the purpose in the Schedule.
3.     If any claim under this Policy is also covered in whole or in part by any other insurance, the liability of Insurers shall be limited to their rateable proportion of such claim.
4.     If the Insured shall make any claim knowing the same to be false or fraudulent as regards amount or otherwise, this Policy shall become void, and all claims hereunder shall be forfeited.
5.     This Policy may be cancelled at any time at the written request of the Insured or may be cancelled by or on behalf of the Insurers provided 15 days notice in writing be given. (Where 15 days notice is contrary to the law or statute then the minimum period that is permitted shall be substituted therefor).
If the Policy shall be cancelled by the Insured the Insurers shall retain the earned premium hereon for the period that this Policy has been in force calculated in accordance with the basis in the Schedule, or the short rate proportion of the minimum premium, calculated in accordance with the customary scale whichever is the greater.
If the Policy shall be cancelled by Insurers they shall retain the earned premium hereon for the period that this Policy has been in force, calculated in accordance with the basis in the Schedule or pro rata of the minimum premium whichever is the greater. Notice of cancellation by the Insurers shall be effective even though the Insurers make no payment or tender of return premium.
6.     It is a condition precedent to the right of the Insured to be indemnified under this Insurance that
(a)    If after this Insurance has been effected, the risk is materially altered, such alterations must be notified in writing to the Insurers immediately.
(b)    No liability shall be admitted and no admission, arrangement, offer, promise or payment shall be made by the Insured without the written consent of Insurers, who shall be entitled, if they so desire, to take over and conduct in the name of the Insured the defence of any claim or to prosecute in the name of the Insured for their own benefit any claim for indemnity or damages or otherwise against any third party, and shall have full discretion in the conduct of any negotiations or proceedings or the settlement of any claim, and the Insured shall give all such information and assistance as Insurers may require.
(c)    The Insured shall and will at all times exercise reasonable care in seeing that the ways, implements, plant, machinery and appliances used in the Insured's business are substantial and sound and in proper order, and fit for the purpose for which they are used, and that all reasonable safeguards and precautions against accidents are provided and used.
(d)    The Insured shall comply with all International and Government Regulations and Civil Instructions.
7.     Notwithstanding the inclusion herein of more than one Insured, whether by endorsement or otherwise, the total liability of the Insurers in respect of any or all Insureds shall not exceed the limit(s) of liability stated in this Policy.


48FLY00001

By Ridwan Ichsan on 25.8.11 | , | 1 comment

Biaya Litigasi Dalam Asuransi Tanggung Gugat (Liability Insurance)

Dalam asuransi tanggung jawab hukum (liability Insurance), tertanggung diberikan jaminan atas tanggung jawab hukum kepada pihak ketiga. Biasanya jaminan tersebut diberikan terhadap Cidera Badan (Bodily Injury) dan kerusakan harta benda (Property damage) pihak ketiga akibat tindakan tertanggung.

Selain Jaminan dasar tersebut biasanya penanggung memberikan tambahan jaminan atas beberapa kategori biaya yang terkait dengan tanggung jawab atau proses hukum yang timbul (Biaya Litigasi). Kategori biaya yang biasanya deberikan sebagai tambahan jaminan antara lain:

1. Biaya yang dikeluarkan pihak penuntut (plaintiff's cost & expenses) yang dibebankan kepada pihak tertuntut yang dinyatakan kalah

2. Biaya dan pengeluaran yang dikeluarkan tertanggung terkait dengan proses hukum / pembelaan diri terhadap suatu tuntutan (berdasarkan persetujuan tertanggung)

Biaya-biaya tersebut dapat diberikan dengan dua mekanisme, yaitu Addition basis, atau Inclusive Basis.

Addition basis memberikan jaminan atas tambahan biaya-biaya litigasi tersebut diluar dari limit of indemnity yang telah ditetapkan penanggung. contoh: Suatu polis memiliki limit of indemnity Max Rp. 1 Milyar / periode. Limit tersebut hanya berlaku untuk penggantian ganti rugi dalam hal cedera badan atau kerusakan harta benda saja. dalam hal ada biaya-biaya litigasi, maka besarnya biaya litigasi tersebut tidak akan menghabiskan Limit of indemnity.

Inclusive basis memberikan jaminan atas tambahan biaya - biaya litigasi tersebut sebagai bagian dari limit of indemnity yang telah ditetapkan penanggung. contoh: Suatu polis memiliki limit of indemnity Max Rp. 1 Milyar / periode. Limit tersebut  berlaku untuk penggantian ganti rugi dalam hal cedera badan atau kerusakan harta benda dan juga biaya-biaya litigasi, maka besarnya biaya litigasi tersebut akan turut menghabiskan Limit of indemnity polis tersebut.

Penentuan metode Addition basis ataupun Inclusive basis harus dipertimbangkan baik-baik oleh para underwriter, mengingat hal tersebut berpengaruh terhadap penambahan resiko yang dijamin polis tanggung gugat tersebut. 

By Ridwan Ichsan on 16.8.11 | , | A comment?

Bermacam "Triggering Basis" Dalam Asuransi Tanggung Gugat

Dalam asuransi tanggung gugat (liability) yang memiliki resiko laten (Latency Risk), underwriter memiliki berbagai alternatif pilihan untuk menentukan saat / waktu berlakunya jaminan (operative clause) dari polis liability yang diterbitkannya. hal ini biasa diistilahkan sebagai "Triggering Basis".

Berbagai Triggering Basis tersebut antara lain:
  • Causation basis: Polis menjamin kerugian yang penyebab kerugiannya tersebut terjadi selama periode asuransi
  • Occurrence basis: Polis menjamin kerugian yang kerugiannya terjadi selama periode asuransi. Paling umum digunakan dalam polis public liability & product liability.
  • Manifestation basis: Polis menjamin kerugian dimana tanda-tanda adanya kerugian tersebut ‘Manifest’ / diketahui selama periode asuransi
  • Losses Discovered basis: Polis menjamin kerugian yang penyebab kerugiannya diketahui saat Periode asuransi.
  • Claims Made basis: Polis menjamin kerugian dimana kerugian tersebut diajukan gugatan klaimnya terhadap tertanggung saat periode polis. Umum digunakan untuk professional liability. Membatasi resiko latency.

By Ridwan Ichsan on 15.8.11 | , | A comment?

NewsFlash

Loading...